Nuremberg - Netflix
Following the defeat of Germany in WWII, the Allies determine that there must be an accounting of German war crimes. Twenty-four Nazis, representative of all sections of military and civilian life are chosen to stand trial for the crimes of conspiracy to commit aggression, commission of aggression, crimes during war and crimes against humanity. The preparations for the trial, the trial itself and its aftermath are shown through the eyes of Chief Prosecutor Robert Jackson and through the eyes of Reichsmarshal Hermann Goering, the ranking Nazi defendant.
Runtime: 90 minutes
Nuremberg - Nuremberg Code - Netflix
The Nuremberg Code (German: Nürnberger Kodex) is a set of research ethics principles for human experimentation set as a result of the subsequent Nuremberg trials at the end of the Second World War.
Nuremberg - Background - Netflix
The origin of the Nuremberg Code began in pre-World War II German politics, particularly during the 1930s and 1940s. The pre-war German Medical Association was considered to be a progressive yet democratic association with great concerns for public health, one example being the legislation of compulsory health insurance for German workers. However, starting in the mid-1920s, German physicians, usually proponents of racial hygiene, were accused by the public and the medical society of unethical medical practices. The use of racial hygiene was supported by the German government in order to create an Aryan “master race,” and to exterminate those who did not fit into their criteria. Racial hygiene extremists merged with National Socialism to promote the use of biology to accomplish their goals of racial purity, a core concept in the Nazi ideology. Physicians were attracted to the scientific ideology and aided in the establishment of National Socialist Physicians' League in 1929 to “purify the German medical community of 'Jewish Bolshevism.'” Criticism was becoming prevalent; Alfons Stauder, member of the Reich Health Office, claimed that the “dubious experiments have no therapeutic purpose,” and Fredrich von Muller, physician and the president of the Deutsche Akademie, joined the criticism. In response to the criticism of unethical human experimentation, the Reich government issued “Guidelines for New Therapy and Human Experimentation” in Weimar, Germany. The guidelines were based on beneficence and non-maleficence, but also stressed legal doctrine of informed consent. The guidelines clearly distinguished the difference between therapeutic and non-therapeutic research. For therapeutic purposes, the guidelines allowed administration without consent only in dire situations, but for non-therapeutic purposes any administration without consent was strictly forbidden. However, the guidelines from Weimar were negated by Adolf Hitler. By 1942, more than 38,000 German physicians were in the Nazi party, who helped carry out medical programs such as the Sterilization Law. After World War II, a series of trials were held to hold members of the Nazi party responsible for a multitude of war crimes. The trials were approved by President Harry Truman in January 1946 and were led exclusively by the United States. They began on December 9, 1946 in Nuremberg, Germany, in what became known as the Nuremberg trials. In one of the trials, which became known as the “Doctors' Trial,” German physicians responsible for conducting unethical medical procedures on humans during the war were tried. They focused on physicians that conducted inhumane and unethical human experiments in concentration camps, in addition to those who were involved in over 3,500,000 sterilizations of German citizens. Several of the accused argued that their experiments differed little from those used before the war, and that there was no law that differentiated between legal and illegal experiments. On August 20, 1947, the judges delivered their verdict against Karl Brandt and 22 others. In May 1947, while the trials were being held, six points defining legitimate medical research were submitted to the Counsel for War Crimes. Three judges, in response to expert medical advisers for the prosecution, adopted these points and added four additional points. The 10 points constituted the “Nuremberg Code,” which includes such principles as informed consent and absence of coercion; properly formulated scientific experimentation; and beneficence towards experiment participants. It is thought to have been mainly based on the Hippocratic Oath, which was interpreted as endorsing the experimental approach to medicine while protecting the patient.
Nuremberg - References - Netflix