# Escape! - Netflix

We've locked celebrities in a room together and thrown a bunch of puzzles and riddles at them to see if they can free themselves in under a half hour. Janet Varney hosts as we bring the escape room phenomenon to the screen.

Type: Reality

Languages: English

Status: Running

Runtime: 30 minutes

Premier: 2016-11-16

## Escape! - Escape velocity - Netflix

In physics, escape velocity is the minimum speed needed for an object to escape from the gravitational influence of a massive body. The escape velocity from Earth is about 11.186 km/s (6.951 mi/s; 40,270 km/h; 25,020 mph) at the surface. More generally, escape velocity is the speed at which the sum of an object's kinetic energy and its gravitational potential energy is equal to zero; an object which has achieved escape velocity is neither on the surface, nor in a closed orbit (of any radius). With escape velocity in a direction pointing away from the ground of a massive body, the object will move away from the body, slowing forever and approaching, but never reaching, zero speed. Once escape velocity is achieved, no further impulse need be applied for it to continue in its escape. In other words, if given escape velocity, the object will move away from the other body, continually slowing, and will asymptotically approach zero speed as the object's distance approaches infinity, never to come back. Speeds higher than escape velocity have a positive speed at infinity. Note that the minimum escape velocity assumes that there is no friction (e.g., atmospheric drag), which would increase the required instantaneous velocity to escape the gravitational influence, and that there will be no future sources of additional velocity (e.g., thrust), which would reduce the required instantaneous velocity. For a spherically symmetric, massive body such as a star, or planet, the escape velocity for that body, at a given distance, is calculated by the formula

v e = 2 G M r , {\displaystyle v_{e}={\sqrt {\frac {2GM}{r}}},}

where G is the universal gravitational constant (G ≈ 6.67×10−11 m3·kg−1·s−2), M the mass of the body to be escaped from, and r the distance from the center of mass of the body to the object. The relationship is independent of the mass of the object escaping the massive body. Conversely, a body that falls under the force of gravitational attraction of mass M, from infinity, starting with zero velocity, will strike the massive object with a velocity equal to its escape velocity given by the same formula. When given a speed

V {\displaystyle V} greater than the escape speed v e , {\displaystyle v_{e},} the object will asymptotically approach the hyperbolic excess speed v ∞ , {\displaystyle v_{\infty },} satisfying the equation:

v ∞ 2 = V 2 − v e 2 . {\displaystyle {v_{\infty }}^{2}=V^{2}-{v_{e}}^{2}.}

In these equations atmospheric friction (air drag) is not taken into account. A rocket moving out of a gravity well does not actually need to attain escape velocity to escape, but could achieve the same result (escape) at any speed with a suitable mode of propulsion and sufficient propellant to provide the accelerating force on the object to escape. Escape velocity is only required to send a ballistic object on a trajectory that will allow the object to escape the gravity well of the mass M.

## Escape! - Practical considerations - Netflix

In most situations it is impractical to achieve escape velocity almost instantly, because of the acceleration implied, and also because if there is an atmosphere the hypersonic speeds involved (on Earth a speed of 11.2 km/s, or 40,320 km/h) would cause most objects to burn up due to aerodynamic heating or be torn apart by atmospheric drag. For an actual escape orbit, a spacecraft will accelerate steadily out of the atmosphere until it reaches the escape velocity appropriate for its altitude (which will be less than on the surface). In many cases, the spacecraft may be first placed in a parking orbit (e.g. a low Earth orbit, LEO, at 160–2,000 km) and then accelerated to the escape velocity at that altitude, which will be slightly lower (about 11.0 km/s at a LEO of 200 km). The required additional change in speed, however, is far less because the spacecraft already has significant orbital velocity (in low Earth orbit speed is approximately 7.8 km/s, or 28,080 km/h).

## Escape! - References - Netflix

- https://www.netflixtvshows.com
- http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1959-012A
- https://books.google.com/books?id=rOYwBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA116
- http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0611671
- http://www.calctool.org/CALC/phys/astronomy/escape_velocity