easyJet: Inside the Cockpit - Netflix
Documentary following future pilots as they undergo easyJet's rigorous training program.
Runtime: 60 minutes
easyJet: Inside the Cockpit - PSA Flight 182 - Netflix
Pacific Southwest Airlines (PSA) Flight 182 was a Boeing 727-214 commercial airliner, registration, N533PS that collided with a private Cessna 172 light aircraft, registration, N7711G over San Diego, California, at 9:01 am on Monday, September 25, 1978. It was Pacific Southwest Airlines' first deadly accident. The death toll of 144 made it the deadliest air disaster in the United States, until the crash of American Airlines Flight 191 eight months later. Both aircraft crashed into North Park, a San Diego neighborhood. Flight 182 impacted just north of the intersection of Dwight and Nile, killing all 135 people aboard the aircraft and seven people on the ground in houses, including two children. The Cessna impacted on Polk Ave. between 32nd St. and Iowa St. killing the two on board. Nine others on the ground were injured and 22 homes were destroyed or damaged by the impact and debris. The PSA 182 accident caused the revision of air traffic rules applicable to the busiest airports across the U.S., with the intention of improving separation of aircraft operating in the vicinity of large airports.
easyJet: Inside the Cockpit - Accident - Netflix
On the morning of Monday, September 25, 1978, Pacific Southwest Airlines Flight 182 departed Sacramento for San Diego via Los Angeles. The seven-person, San Diego-based crew consisted of Captain James McFeron, 42, First Officer Robert Fox, 38; Flight Engineer Martin Wahne, 44; and Flight Attendants Karen Borzewski, 29, Katherine Fons, 20, Deborah McCarthy, 29, and Dee Young, 26. The flight from Sacramento to Los Angeles was uneventful. At 8:34 a.m., Flight 182 departed Los Angeles. First Officer Fox was the pilot flying. There were 128 passengers on board including 29 PSA employees. The weather in San Diego that morning was sunny and clear with 10 miles (16 km) of visibility. At 8:59 a.m., the PSA crew was alerted by the approach controller about a small Cessna 172 Skyhawk aircraft nearby. The Cessna was being flown by two licensed pilots. One was Martin Kazy Jr., 32, who possessed single-engine, multiengine, and instrument flight ratings, as well as a commercial certificate and an instrument flight instructor certificate. He had flown a total of 5,137 hours. The other, David Boswell, 35, a U.S. Marine Corps Sergeant, possessed single-engine and multiengine ratings and a commercial certificate. He had flown just 407 hours and, at the time of the accident, was practicing instrument landing system approaches under the instruction of Kazy in pursuit of his instrument rating. They had departed from Montgomery Field and were navigating under visual flight rules, which did not require the filing of a flight plan. Boswell was wearing a “hood” to limit his field of vision straight ahead to the cockpit panel, much like an oversized sun visor with vertical panels to block peripheral vision, which is normal in IFR training. At the time of the collision, the Cessna was on the missed approach (in visual meteorological conditions) from Lindbergh's Runway 9, heading east and climbing. The Cessna was in communication with San Diego approach control. The PSA pilots reported that they saw the Cessna after being notified of its position by ATC, although cockpit voice recordings revealed that, shortly thereafter, the PSA pilots no longer had the Cessna in sight and they were speculating about its position. Lindbergh tower heard the 09.00:50 transmission as “He's passing off to our right” and assumed the PSA jet had the Cessna in sight. After getting permission to land and, about 40 seconds before colliding with the Cessna, the conversation among the four occupants of the cockpit (Captain, First Officer, Flight Engineer, and the off-duty PSA Captain, Spencer Nelson, who was riding in the cockpit's jump seat) was, as follows, showing the confusion: Despite the captain's comment that the Cessna was “probably behind us now,” it was actually directly in front of and below the Boeing. The PSA plane was descending and rapidly closing in on the small plane, which had taken a right turn to the east, deviating from the assigned course. According to the report issued by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), the Cessna may have been a difficult visual target for the jet's pilots, as it was below them and blended in with the multicolored houses of the residential area beneath; the Cessna's fuselage was yellow, and most of the houses were a yellowish color. Also, the apparent motion of the Cessna as viewed from the Boeing was minimized, as both planes were on approximately the same course. The report said that another possible reason that the PSA aircrew had difficulty observing the Cessna was that its fuselage was made visually smaller due to foreshortening. However, the same report in another section also stated that “the white surface of the Cessna's wing could have presented a relatively bright target in the morning sunlight.” A visibility study cited in the NTSB report concluded that the Cessna should have been almost centered in the windshield of the Boeing from 170 to 90 seconds before the collision, and thereafter it was probably positioned on the lower portion of the windshield just above the windshield wipers. The study also said that the Cessna pilot would have had about a 10-second view of the Boeing from the left-door window about 90 seconds before the collision, but visibility of the overtaking jet was blocked by the Cessna's ceiling structure for the remainder of the time. Flight 182's crew never explicitly alerted the tower that they had lost sight of the Cessna. If they had made this clear to controllers, the crash might not have happened. Also, if the Cessna had maintained the heading of 70° assigned to it by ATC instead of turning to 90°, the NTSB estimates the planes would have missed each other by about 1000 feet (300 meters) instead of colliding. Ultimately, the NTSB maintained that, regardless of that change in course, it was the responsibility of the crew in the overtaking jet to comply with the regulatory requirement to pass “well clear” of the Cessna. Approach Control on the ground picked up an automated conflict alert 19 seconds before the collision but did not relay this information to the aircraft because, according to the approach coordinator, such alerts were commonplace even when no actual conflict existed. The NTSB stated: “Based on all information available to him, he decided that the crew of Flight 182 were complying with their visual separation clearance; that they were accomplishing an overtake maneuver within the separation parameters of the conflict alert computer; and that, therefore, no conflict existed.” This was the conversation in the PSA cockpit starting 16 seconds prior to collision with the Cessna: PSA Flight 182 overtook the Cessna, which was directly below it, both roughly on a 090 (due east) heading. The collision occurred at about 2,600 feet (790 m). According to several witnesses on the ground, first, they heard a loud metallic “crunching” sound, then an explosion, and a fire drew them to look up. Staff photographer Hans Wendt of the San Diego County Public Relations Office was attending an outdoor press event with a still camera and was able to take two post-collision photographs of the falling 727, its right wing burning. Cameraman Steve Howell from local TV channel 39 was attending the same event and captured the Cessna on film as it fell to earth, the sound of the impacting 727, and the mushroom cloud from the resulting crash. For its coverage of the disaster, The San Diego Evening Tribune, a predecessor to The San Diego Union-Tribune, was awarded a Pulitzer Prize in 1979 for “Local, General, or Spot News Reporting”. The wreckage of the Cessna plummeted to the ground, its vertical stabilizer torn from its fuselage and bent leftward, its debris hitting around 3,500 feet (1,100 m) northwest of where the 727 went down. PSA 182's right wing was heavily damaged, rendering the plane uncontrollable and sending it careening into a sharp right bank (clearly seen in the Wendt photos), and the fuel tank inside it ruptured and started a fire, when this final conversation took place inside the cockpit:
Flight 182 struck a house 3 miles (4.8 km) northeast of Lindbergh Field, in a residential section of San Diego known as North Park. It impacted at a 300 mph (480 km/h), nose-down attitude while banked 50° to the right. Seismographic readings indicated that the impact occurred at 09:02:07, about 2.5 seconds after the cockpit voice recorder lost power. The plane crashed just west of the I-805 freeway, around 30 feet (9.1 m) north of the intersection of Dwight and Nile Streets, with the bulk of the debris field spreading in a northeast to southwesterly direction towards Boundary Street. One of the plane's wings lodged in a house. The coordinates for the Boeing crash site are 32°44′37″N 117°07′14″W. The largest piece of the Cessna impacted about six blocks away near 32nd Street and Polk Avenue. The coordinates for the Cessna crash site are 32°45′7.97″N 117°7′32.57″W. The explosion and fire from the 727 crashing created a mushroom cloud that could be seen for miles (and was photographed and filmed), About 60% of the entire San Diego Fire Department was ultimately dispatched to the scene, and first responders said nothing resembling an airplane was anywhere to be seen, since the impact, explosion, and fires had completely destroyed the 727 with no sizable components remaining except the engines, empennage, and landing gear. However, the impact and debris area was relatively small due to the plane's steep, nose-down angle. In total, 144 people lost their lives in the disaster, including Flight 182's seven crew members, 30 additional PSA employees deadheading to PSA's San Diego base, the two Cessna occupants, and seven residents (five women, two male children) on the ground. One potential passenger, Jack Ridout, a survivor of the Tenerife airport disaster the year before, had also booked a ticket on Flight 182 from Los Angeles, but he cancelled his booking to leave for home the day before.
easyJet: Inside the Cockpit - References - Netflix