AKB to XX! - Netflix
Runtime: 60 minutes
AKB to XX! - Synthetic cannabinoids - Netflix
Synthetic cannabinoids are a class of molecules that bind to cannabinoid receptors in the body–the same receptors that the cannabinoids in cannabis plants, such as THC and CBD–attach to. Synthetic cannabinoids are also designer drugs that are often sprayed onto plant matter. They are typically consumed through smoking, although more recently they have been consumed in a concentrated liquid form in the US and UK. They have been marketed as herbal incense, or “herbal smoking blends” and sold under common names like K2, Spice, and Synthetic Marijuana. They are also often labeled “not for human consumption.” When synthetic cannabinoid blends first went on sale in the early 2000s, it was thought that they achieved the psychoactive effects through a mixture of natural herbs. Laboratory analysis in 2008 showed that this was not the case, and that many in fact contained synthetic cannabinoids. Today, synthetic cannabinoids are the most common new psychoactive substances to be reported. From 2008 to 2014, 142 synthetic cannabinoids were reported to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA). A large and complex variety of synthetic cannabinoids are designed in an attempt to avoid the legal restrictions on cannabis, making synthetic cannabinoids designer drugs. Most synthetic cannabinoids are agonists of the cannabinoid receptors, and many have been designed based on THC, the natural cannabinoid with the strongest binding affinity to the CB1 receptor, which is linked to the psychoactive effects or “high” of marijuana. These synthetic analogs often have greater binding affinity and greater potency to the CB1 receptors. There are several synthetic cannabinoid families (e.g. CP-xxx, WIN-xxx, JWH-xxx, UR-xxx, and PB-xx) classified based on the base structure. Reported user negative effects include palpitations, paranoia, intense anxiety, nausea, vomiting, confusion, poor coordination, and seizures. There have also been reports of a strong compulsion to re-dose, withdrawal symptoms, and persistent cravings. There have been several deaths linked to synthetic cannabinoids. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that the number of deaths from synthetic cannabinoid use tripled between 2014 and 2015.
AKB to XX! - Uses - Netflix
Synthetic cannabinoids were originally used for cannabinoid research focusing on tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive and analgesic compound found in the cannabis plant. Synthetic cannabinoids were used in part due to legal restrictions on natural cannabinoids, which make them very hard to obtain for research. Tritium-labelled cannabinoids such as CP-55,940 were instrumental in discovering the cannabinoid receptors in the early 1990s. Some early synthetic cannabinoids were also used in clinics. Nabilone, a first generation synthetic THC analog, has been used as an antiemetic, a drug to combat vomiting and nausea, since 1981. Synthetic THC (marinol, dronabinol) has been used as an antiemetic since 1985 and an appetite stimulant since 1991. In the early 2000s, synthetic cannabinoids started being used for recreational drug use in an attempt to get similar effects to cannabis. Since synthetic cannabinoids had different molecular structures to THC and other illegal cannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoids were technically legal, or at least not illegal, to sell or possess. Since the discovery of the use of synthetic cannabinoids for recreational use in 2008, some synthetic cannabinoids have been made illegal, but new analogs are continually synthesized that get around those restrictions. Synthetic cannabinoids have also been used recreationally because they are inexpensive and they are typically not identified by the standard marijuana drug tests. Unlike nabilone, the synthetic cannabinoids found being used for recreational use do not have any documented therapeutic effects.
AKB to XX! - References - Netflix