99 Years of Love - Japanese Americans - Netflix
The story follows a family of Japanese immigrants who crossed over to America 99 years ago. Kusanagi plays both the young Hiramatsu Chokichi (later taken over by Nakai) and his son, Ichiro. When the war breaks out the Japanese immigrants face racism and segregation. Ichiro pledges his alliance to America and gets sent to Europe, second son Jiro stays back with Ichiro's beloved Shinobu (who he has a crush on) and tries to protect his parents' farm. Their two sisters Shizu and Sachie are sent back to Japan and have to experience the horrors of war, one in Hiroshima and the other in Okinawa.
Runtime: 115 minutes
99 Years of Love - Japanese Americans - Yaoi - Netflix
Yaoi (; Japanese: やおい [ja.o.i]), primarily known as boys' love (BL) (ボーイズ ラブ, bōizu rabu) in Japan, is a Japanese genre of fictional media focusing on romantic or sexual relationships between male characters, typically marketed for a female audience and usually created by female authors. Yaoi also attracts male readers, but manga specifically marketed for a gay male audience (bara) is considered a separate genre. The main characters in yaoi usually conform to the formula of the seme (the “top”, or dominant figure) who pursues the uke (the “bottom”, or passive figure). Material classified as yaoi typically depicts gay relationships between male characters and may include homoerotic content. Although the yaoi genre is also called Boys' Love (commonly abbreviated as BL), the characters may be of any age above puberty, including adults. Works featuring prepubescent boys are labelled shotacon and seen as a distinct genre. Yaoi derives from two sources; in the early 1970s, shōjo manga magazines published tanbi (aesthetic) stories, also known as shōnen ai (boy love), featuring platonic relationships between young boys. The other influence began in the dōjinshi (fan fiction) markets of Japan in the late 1970s as yaoi, a sexualized parody of popular shōnen manga and anime stories. In the late 1970s, shōjo magazines devoted to the new genre began to appear; and, in the 1990s, the term boys' love or BL was invented for the genre, which replaced earlier terms such as tanbi, shōnen ai and juné in Japanese usage. In Japan, the term yaoi continues to refer mainly to parody dōjinshi; among Western fans, however, yaoi is used as a generic term for female-oriented manga, anime, dating sims, novels and fan fiction works featuring idealized gay male relationships. The genre has spread beyond Japan, and both translated and original yaoi works are now available in many countries and languages.
99 Years of Love - Japanese Americans - General - Netflix
Boys' love manga has received considerable critical attention, especially after translations of BL became commercially available outside Japan in the 21st century. Different critics and commentators have had very different views of BL. In 1983, Frederik L. Schodt, an American manga writer and translator, has observed that portrayals of gay male relationships had used and further developed bisexual themes already in existence in shoujo manga to appeal to their female audience. Japanese critics have viewed boys' love as a genre that permits their audience to avoid adult female sexuality by distancing sex from their own bodies, as well as to create fluidity in perceptions of gender and sexuality and rejects “socially mandated” gender roles as a “first step toward feminism.” Kazuko Suzuki, for example, believes that the audience's aversion to or contempt for masculine heterosexism is something which has consciously emerged as a result of the genre's popularity. Mizoguchi, writing in 2003, feels that BL is a “female-gendered space,” as the writers, readers, artists and most of the editors of BL are female. BL has been compared to romance novels by English-speaking librarians. Parallels have also been noted in the popularity of lesbianism in pornography, and yaoi has been called a form of “female fetishism”. Mariko Ōhara, a science fiction writer, has said that she wrote yaoi Kirk/Spock fiction as a teen because she could not enjoy “conventional pornography, which had been made for men”, and that she had found a “limitless freedom” in yaoi, much like in science fiction. Other commentators have suggested that more radical gender-political issues underlie BL. In 1998, Shihomi Sakakibara argued that yaoi fans, including himself, were gay female-to-male transsexuals. Sandra Buckley believes that bishounen narratives champion “the imagined potentialities of alternative [gender] differentiations”, while James Welker described the bishounen character as “queer”, commenting that manga critic Akiko Mizoguchi saw shōnen-ai as playing a role in how she herself had become a lesbian. Dru Pagliassotti sees this and the yaoi ronsō as indicating that for Japanese gay and lesbian readers, BL is not as far removed from reality as heterosexual female readers like to claim. Welker has also written that boys love titles liberate the female audience “not just from patriarchy, but from gender dualism and heteronormativity.”
99 Years of Love - Japanese Americans - References - Netflix